Other crowns include ancient crowns, mural crowns for walled cities and naval crowns for Naval institutions shown right. Another addition that can be made to a coat of arms is the insignia of a baronet or of an order of knighthood. This is usually represented by a collar or similar band surrounding the shield. When the arms of a knight and his wife are shown in one achievement, the insignia of knighthood surround the husband's arms only, and the wife's arms are customarily surrounded by an ornamental garland of leaves for visual balance. Mantling or lambrequin is drapery tied to the helmet above the shield.
It forms a backdrop for the shield. It is a depiction of the protective cloth covering often of linen worn by knights from their helmets to stave off the elements, and, secondarily, to decrease the effects of sword-blows against the helmet in battle, from which it is usually shown tattered or cut to shreds as if damaged in combat, though the edges of most are simply decorated at the emblazoner's discretion.
It is sometimes shown as an intact drape, principally in those cases where a clergyman uses a helmet and mantling to symbolise that the clergyman has not been involved in combat, although this is usually the artist's discretion. More often clergymen do not use the helm, torse and mantling though if they inherit their arms they will be inherited by their heir.
Helm, torse and mantling are usually included in new grants of arms to clergymen because their descendants might use them even if the grantee does not. Typically in British heraldry, the outer surface of the mantling is of the principal colour in the shield and the inner surface is of the principal metal, though there are exceptions, with occasional tinctures differing from these, for example just one colour, or three or four colours, or two furs. Peers in the United Kingdom use red and ermine standard colourings regardless of rank or the colourings of their arms though in practice, some prefer to use their own colours.
The arms of the United Kingdom and those of Emperor Akihito of Japan are both or, lined ermine, such a mantling often being held to be limited to sovereigns. In the early days of the development of the crest, before the torse wreath , crest coronets and chapeaux were developed, the crest often "continued into the mantling" if this was feasible the clothes worn by a demi- human figure, or the fur of the animal, for instance, allowing or encouraging this. This still holds true frequently in Germany.
There are rare examples where the mantling is blazoned to compliment the armiger's coat of arms, mimicking the ordinaries and charges on the escutcheon. When charges occur, they are usually displayed as semy. Crest: A goat's head erased Argent, attired Or, charged on the neck with a cross of ermine spots, as in the arms.
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Crest: A cross-bow erect proper, the stock Or. Crest: An Ermine passant. The Arms of Gera in Germany showing how the earliest heraldic crests would have looked.
In early arms the crest often continued into the mantling as in this elegant modern example of the arms of Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick. The swan feathers of the swan's neck continue into the manteling giving a pleasing unity to the achievement. Image reproduced by courtesy of Andrew Jamieson.
The Torse and Mantling are remnants of the Middle Eastern head dress keffiyeh adopted by crusaders in the Holy Land, at the very birth of Heraldry. This cloth headgear prevented their helms and armour heating up in the sunlight. The cloth is held in place by a rope circlet known as an agal the equivalent of the torse.
Below are a couple of modern keffiyeh wearers, Lawrence of Arabia and Yasser Arafat. The arms of the Baron of Prestoungrange. These Scottish arms are shown on a red and ermine canopy. Canopies are usually associated with continental royalty and senior nobility who use a canopy instead of mantling.
Reproduced here by courtesy of Andrew Jamieson. An armorial motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of the armigerous person or corporation. This can form a pun on the family name as in Thomas Nevile's motto "Ne vile velis. Mottoes are generally changed at will and do not make up an integral part of the armorial achievement.
Mottoes can typically be found on a scroll under the shield. In Scottish heraldry where the motto is granted as part of the blazon, it is usually shown on a scroll above the crest, and may not be changed at will. A motto may be in any language. Supporters are figures placed on either side of the shield and generally depicted holding it up. These figures may be animal or human, real or imaginary. In rare cases plants or inanimate objects. Supporters can have local significance, such as the fisherman and the tin miner granted to Cornwall County Council, or an historical link, such as the lion of England and unicorn of Scotland on the two variations of the Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom.
There is usually one supporter on each side of the shield, though there are some examples of single supporters placed behind the shield, and the arms of Congo provide an extremely unusual example of supporters issuing from behind the shield.
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While such single supporters are generally eagles City of Perth, Scotland with one or two heads, there are other examples, including the cathedra in the case of some Canadian cathedrals. At the other extreme and even rarer the Scottish family Dundas of that Ilk, had three supporters; two conventional red lions and the whole supported by a salamander. The coat of arms of Iceland even has four supporters. Animal supporters are by default as close to rampant as possible if the nature of the supporter allows it this does not need to be mentioned in the blazon , though there are some blazoned exceptions.
An example of whales 'non-rampant' is the arms of the Dutch municipality of Zaanstad.
In some traditions, supporters have acquired strict guidelines for use. In the United Kingdom, supporters are typically an example of special royal favour, granted at the behest of the sovereign. Hereditary supporters are normally limited to hereditary peers, certain members of the Royal Family, chiefs of Scottish clans, and Scottish feudal barons whose baronies predate Knights banneret were also granted nonhereditary supporters, but no such knight has been created since the time of Charles I.
Supporters may also be granted to corporations which have a Royal charter. In Canada, Companions of the Order of Canada, people granted the style "the Right Honourable", and corporations are granted the use of supporters on their coats of arms. Further, on his retirement from office as Chief Herald, Robert Watt was granted supporters as an honour.
On the European continent, there are often fewer restrictions on the use of supporters. The arms of the Kingdom of Spain with the Pillars of Hercules as supporters reproduced here by courtesy of Wikipedia. A hatchment is a distinctive rendering of a dead person's arms, represented on a lozenge not lozenge shaped arms, but arms painted within a lozenge shaped frame.
This feature is enough to indicate that the rendering is a funeral hatchment, but there are often other clues. The crest may be replaced by a skull and the motto by the word "Resurgam" I shall arise. The background is black or in some cases black and white - in some countries the pattern of black and white conveys information about whether the man is dead, or the woman is dead, or both are dead, which can get complicated when there have been remarriages.. Sometimes symbols of time, such as a sand-timer or arrows, may be shown on the background.
Hatchments have now largely fallen into disuse, but many hatchments from former times remain in parish churches, especially in England. The practice developed in the early 17th century from the older custom of carrying an heraldic shield before the coffin of the deceased, then leaving it for display in the church. In medieval times, helmets and shields were sometimes deposited in churches and a few examples may still be seen in English parish churches.
At the universities of Oxford and Cambridge it was usual to hang the hatchment of a deceased head of a house over the entrance to his lodge or residence. There is a fine collection of such hatchments at All Souls College in Oxford - the Wardens' arms each being impaled with the arms of the college. Colours and military or naval emblems are sometimes placed behind the arms of military or naval officers.
The family motto is replaced by the word Resurgam "I shal rise again" - an affirmation of Christian belief. The black and white background conveys additional information - the whitebackground to the sinister side of the arms tells us that the armiger's wife survived him.
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This hatchment is a little different - there is no crest, torse or lambrequin - just some decoration and a cherub. The arms represented on a lozenge, so we can assume that these the arms of the first wife. To marshal two or more coats of arms is to combine them in one shield, to express inheritance, claims to property, or the occupation of an office. This can be done in a number of ways. Dimidiation combines the Dexter half of one coat with the sinister half of another. This method was not satisfactory for a number of reasons - it can create ambiguity between, for example, a bend and a chevron since they are identical in one half of the shield.
Another problem is the creation of odd combinations - as for example in the arms of Great Yarmouth shown on the right. Using impalement the field is divided per pale and one whole coat of arms is placed in each half. Impalement replaced the earlier dimidiation. By convention certain borders are dimidiated even when impalement is used - see for example the arms of Isabella of Scotland shown on the right, where the Scottish double tressure is dimidiated. In German heraldry, animate charges in combined coats usually turn to face the centre of the composition. A more versatile method is quartering, division of the field by both Vertical and horizontal lines.
This practice originated in Spain after the 13th century. As the name implies, the usual number of divisions is four, but the principle has been extended to very large numbers of "quarters". Quarters are numbered from the Dexter chief the corner nearest to the right shoulder of a man standing behind the shield , proceeding across the top row, and then across the next row and so on. When three coats are quartered, the first is repeated as the fourth; when only two coats are quartered, the second is also repeated as the third.
The quarters of a personal coat of arms correspond to the ancestors from whom the bearer has inherited arms, normally in the same sequence as if the pedigree were laid out with the father's father's The Scottish and Spanish traditions resist allowing more than four quarters, preferring to subdivide one or more "grand quarters" into sub-quarters as needed. A fourth mode of marshalling is with an inescutcheon or escutcheon, a small shield placed in front of the main shield.
The Prince of Wales bears the quartered arms of Wales in escutcheon on his own quartered arms, as shown on the left.
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In Britain this is most often an "escutcheon of pretence" indicating, in the arms of a married couple, that the wife is an heraldic heiress that is, she inherits a coat of arms because she has no brothers. In continental Europe an inescutcheon sometimes called a "heart shield" usually carries the ancestral arms of a monarch or noble whose domains are represented by the quarters of the main shield. On the right are the Royal Arms of the UK Over the basic arms is an escutcheon of pretence representing the Kingdom of Hanover This escutcheon was dropped on the accession of Queen Victoria because, under Salic Law, she did not inherit the Kingdom of Hanover.
Impaled arms of Isabella of Scotland impaling Brittany and Scotland reproduced here by courtesy of Wikipedia.